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海啸后受灾区一大危急净水短缺

海啸后受灾区一大危急净水短缺

Tens of thousands of tsunami survivors are at risk from diseases spread by dirty water, mosquitoes and crowding, and the best medicine is large quantities of clean water, officials of the World Health Organization said yesterday.

  While no epidemics have been confirmed in the vast coastal areas devastated by the tsunamis on Sunday, the officials said they were most worried about diarrheal diseases - cholera, typhoid fever and shigellosis - as well as liver diseases like hepatitis A and E. Those diseases are caused by bacteria or viruses in contaminated drinking water or food, in sewage and among people who lack clean water to wash their hands.

  Health organizations like the W.H.O. and Unicef recommend that each person be given about five gallons of clean water a day. Dr. David Nabarro, the director of crisis operations for the W.H.O., said in a telephone interview from its headquarters in Geneva that water shortages had already occurred in the Maldives and Sri Lanka, and that tanker trucks would be needed to provide clean water.

  In addition, water-purifying tablets are being rushed into the affected countries, along with medicines to treat the dehydration that can result from diarrhea.

  Another hazard to drinking water is contamination of wells by salt water from the tsunamis. Martin Dawes, a regional spokesman for Unicef in Colombo, Sri Lanka, estimated that 1,000 drinking-water wells in the country’s hard-hit eastern region had been contaminated and would have to be pumped out.

  "At the moment," he said, "the water people don’t have the right kind of pumps to rescue the wells." He added that his agency was seeking pumps or money to buy them.

  Mr. Dawes said Unicef had also bought about 20 million gallons of drinking water in 1,500-gallon barrels, enough for 100,000 people, and was expecting them to be delivered to the affected areas on Thursday.




海啸后净水短缺成为受灾区一大危急
  海啸过后,数万名幸存者的家园被毁,他们只能住在临时搭建的帐篷或简易房子里;脏水、蚊子和拥挤的空间都容易传播疾病.世界卫生组织(WHO)的官员说,最好的药物就是大量的净水。但现在,马尔代夫和斯里兰卡,净水已经开始短缺。

  据《纽约时报》12月30日报道,12月26日,当海啸袭击后的东南亚大片海滩尚未发现有疾病传播的时候,世界卫生组织的官员们就担忧受灾区域会产生霍乱、伤寒和志贺氏细菌性痢疾等腹泻性疾病,以及甲型肝炎和戊型肝炎。而这些疾病都是通过不干净的饮用水和食物上携带的细菌和病毒来传播的,在没有干净水洗手的人群中,疾病便更容易传播。

  世界卫生组织和联合国儿童基金会已经提出建议:要供给受灾地区每人每天5加仑干净水。但世界卫生组织应急办公室主任戴维·纳巴罗日前在日内瓦总部说,马尔代夫和斯里兰卡已经发生了水短缺,现在需要用邮罐货车来运送净水。目前,净化水的药片和治疗由腹泻引起脱水的药物正在被运往受灾国家。

  报道说,另一个威胁来自受灾地区的水井。由于海啸使咸海水进入到当地居民食用的水井里,于是这些井被污染。联合国儿童基金会驻斯里兰卡首都科伦坡办事处的发言人马丁·道斯估计,斯里兰卡受灾地区约有1000口饮用水的水井被污染,现在只能用泵把井里的水抽出来。道斯说:“此刻,那里的人们却没有可以用来挽救水井的抽水泵。”

  但道斯表示,办事处正在寻找水泵或者筹集买水泵的钱。同时,联合国儿童基金会已经买了0.2亿加仑的饮用水,这些水被装在容积为1500加仑的水桶里,有可能在12月30日运到受灾地区。他说,这些水将够10万人喝


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